### INTRODUCTION

Although Dr. Carezani is in the predicament described by Richard P. Feynman in the book “The Feynman Lectures on Physics”(1) regarding his statements about the discovery of a new theory of universal gravitation, Carezani doesn’t agree with Feynman’s opinion about the “machinery” of the process. Feynman’s paragraph is repeated here due to it’s concise and clear introduction of the subject. After the quote, Carezani will explain his disagreements with some of the ideas presented here as well as explain Autodynamics’ explanation for universal gravitation.

### Richard Feynman on Gravity

**What is gravity?**

“But is this such a simple law? What about the machinery of it? All we have done is to describe how the earth moves around the sun, but we have not said what makes it go. Newton made no hypotheses about this; he was satisfied to find what it did without getting into the machinery of it. No one has since given any machinery. It is characteristic of the physical laws that they have this abstract character. The law of conservation of energy is a theorem concerning quantities that have to be calculated and added together, with no mention of the machinery, and likewise the great laws of mechanics are quantitative mathematical laws for which no machinery is available. Why can we use mathematics to describe nature without a mechanism behind it? No one knows. We have to keep going because we find out more that way”.

“Many mechanisms for gravitation have been suggested. It is interesting to consider one of these, which many people have thought of from time to time. At first, one is quite excited and happy when he “discovers” it, but soon finds that it is not correct. It was first discovered about 1750. Suppose there were many particles moving in space at a very high speed in all directions and being only slightly absorbed in going through matter. When they are absorbed, they give an impulse to the earth. However, since there are as many going one way as another, the impulses all balance. But when the sun is nearby, the particles coming toward the earth through the sun are partially absorbed, so fewer of them are coming from the sun than are coming from the other side. Therefore, the earth feels a net impulse toward the sun and it does not take one long to see that it is inversely as the square of the distance because of the variation of the solid angle that the sun subtends as we vary the distance. What is wrong with that machinery? It involves some new consequences which are not true. This particular idea has the following trouble: the earth, in moving around the sun, would impinge on more particles which are coming from its forward side than from its hind side (when you run in the rain, the rain in your face is stronger than that on the back of your head!). Therefore there would be more impulse given the earth from the front, and the earth would feel a resistance to motion and would be slowing up in its orbit. One can calculate how long it would take for the earth to stop as a result of this resistance, and it would not take long enough for the earth to still be in its orbit, so this mechanism does not work. No machinery has ever been invented that “explains” gravity without also predicting some other phenomenon that does not exist.”

*(end Feynman quote)*

### Comments on Feynman’s Statement

Feynman’s arguments are irrelevant for a number of reasons. First of all, they are non-scientific because in science it is always possible to explain tomorrow what we cannot explain today. Secondly, from a relativistic viewpoint, his “rain” effect is nonexistent. In the theory espoused in this paper, the mass increase of the sun and a planet is the cause of motion. It would take an increment bigger than that needed for the motion itself to counteract the “rain effect” (remembering that sun loss is approximately 4×10^6 tons of matter per second in the form of radiant energy which must be replaced).

### Energy of Gravitation

We shall suppose that all of the so-called “vacuum of space” is filled with quanta of energy moving in all directions, at light speed or more. These quanta of energy will be called pico-gravitons.

The phenomenon of gravity is that of absorbed pico-gravitons giving their impulse, or momentum, to the absorbing atom’s constituent particles i.e. their action represents a radiation pressure. We cannot give a more detailed machinery with current knowledge.

Each celestial body will absorb pico-gravitons in proportion to its mass, and the force between any two bodies will change as the inverse of the square of the distance between them, because of the variation in the solid angle that a body subtends as we vary the distance.

Newton made no hypothesis about the mechanism of gravitational force, but this force constantly changes the relative position of all celestial bodies. The hypothesis espoused here produces a force that not only changes the celestial bodies’ relative positions but the composition of their matter via the quanta of energy absorbed by all elemental particles. We have, then, a new dynamic to transform matter itself.

It is well known that Mercury’s perihelion advances 574 seconds in a century and it is possible to explain, by perturbation from other celestial bodies, only 531 seconds, leaving an additional 43 seconds per century, even though other explanations are possible(3). This value is explained by the general theory of relativity and this value will be used in our calculation to get the solar mass increment in that period of time (t). Later we will discuss the matter in detail.

If M is the actual solar mass and X is the increment per second in units as fraction of M, we can write:

(1)

The equation that relates the angle T (theta) to M as a function of X is:

(2)(3)

where r is Mercury’s orbital radius and G is the universal constant of gravity. As t is very large with respect to one, t/2 + 1 will be equal to t/2 in the integral, and X will be:

(4)

The interesting values calculated are in Table I.

It is necessary here to make another statement: The Feynman(2) explanation for how radiant energy from the sun is changing is also irrelevant with respect to the ideas espoused in this paper, because to double the sun mass, 3.075×10^9 years are needed and the mass increment will probably change, not the radiation power, but the radiation time. Regarding his comment: “If we calculate what happens to the orbit of the earth when gravity is changing, we find that the earth was then closer in”. With the ideas in this paper, the earth will not have been “closer in”, because the mass increment will only increase the earth’s orbital velocity (advance its perihelion), which will increase the centrifugal force to counteract the increasing force of gravity.

For our calculation, we take 43” per century for the advance of perihelion of Mercury’s orbit, because the variation of values introduced by different researchers will only cause a very small difference in the result calculated with equation (4).

It is well known that a solar probe, circling the sun much closer than Mercury, would be most helpful in the study of the gravitational effect. Of course, the quantity of mass received per each gram of mass present, per second, Ms, Me, Mm, is a constant value, and this value will be of universal application to all celestial bodies.

Another constant value, the constant of universal gravitation, is the ratio between the mass, in grams, received by each square centimeter of a spherical body, per second, and the acceleration of gravity: Sc/gs for Sun, Ec/ge for Earth, Mc/gm for Moon. This constant is equal to 1.22895716612 10^-11 having the following dimensional units: (gr sec/cm3).

With Avogadro’s number and an average Sun density of 1.46 grm/cm3 and given an atomic weight of 9.8(4), an atom in the Sun receives (As, Table I) a mass equal to 1.7111 10^-40 gr per sec. For comparison, if this energy is carried by only one pico-graviton, its mass is (n)5.3235 10^12 times smaller than the electron mass, and its energy, in electron-Volt, is 9.5989 10^-8 (ne).

Using the gravitational constant, if we divide the value of the mass received by each square centimeter of the Earth’s surface, per second, by this constant, the result is the Earth’s acceleration of gravity. The same is true for all celestial bodies.

We made the calculation of ne (Table I) supposing that all the energy needed to give the gravitational force is carried by only one graviton, but the general conception should be to suppose that the energy is carried by many gravitational quanta.

### SR and AD Comparison

The general relativity equation for advance of the Mercury perihelion is:

Where e = eccentricity, c = light speed and G, M, and r have the usual meaning in this paper.

This equation yields, in a century:

42.4″ for Mercury

8″ for Venus

4″ for Earth

1″ for Mars

In AD gravitation, the perihelion advance for each planet is proportional to the square root of the division of the solar mass by the orbital radius power 3.

If the Mercury value is taken as 43″, the values for the other planets are:

Venus = 16.8″

&nnbsp; Earth = 10.4″

Mars = 5.5″

This values are equal to Hall’s empirical values and close to the expected values calculated by Newcomb.

The big difference between SR and AD occurs when the distance to the Sun is smaller. If the distance is 1/3 of the Mercury radius the values are:

GR = 129″

AD = 223″

If the radius is 1/5 of Mercury the values are:

GR = 214″

AD = 481″

We see that the proportional difference increases with decreasing radius. Putting a probe close to the Sun can easily test, in a short time, if its perihelion advance is a natural phenomenon beyond the planetary perturbation and if the values are given by GR or AD gravitational equation.

### Conclusion

The Newtonian concept offers no machinery of motion. We here suggest a machinery for the force that keeps celestial bodies united and is the cause of their motion. The machinery in this case is not too important because the motion of each body in the Universe is the result of another previous motion. The actual machinery is only important because it provokes an increment of velocity on the orbiting bodies, and because it gives a mechanism for matter transformation as a function of time. The inter-space energy equivalent to a given mass could provide the dark matter apparently needed by Cosmologists and to lead to the background radiation. The gravitational energy absorption and matter disintegration drove AD to maintain the universal entropy constant because singularities of high entropy are constantly created.

The author thanks James M. Gavin for assistance in preparing the English language version of this paper.

### References

- Feynman Richard P., Leighton Robert B. and Sands Matthew. The Feynman Lectures on Physics, page 7-9, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Reading, Massachusetts, 1963.

- Ibis, page 7-11.

- R. Nedved. Physics Essays 7, 374(1994).

- This value is encountered as a consequence of taking into account the ratio between solar and Earth density, to equate the two methods of calculation.

### TABLE I

T | 43” | (Sec/cent.) Advance of Mercury’s perihelion. |

X | 3.07503085281e7 | Final value for a century. |

Ic | 6.46172378781474e25 | (gr/cent) Solar mass increment per century. |

Is | 2.0475707e16 | (gr/sec) Solar mas increment per second. |

Mas | 1.03048351974e-17 | (gr/sec) Mass received for 1 gr. per sec. |

As | 1.71115929339e-40 | (gr/sec.atom) Mass received by each atom. |

n | 5.323519402998e12 | Times smaller than the electron mass. |

ne | 9.59891307454e-8 | (eV) The graviton is carrying this energy. |

Td | 3.07503085281e9 | (years) Time needed to double the Sun mass. |

gs | 2.74487579939e4 | (cm/sec2) Sun gravitational acceleration. |

ge | 9.80297286843e2 | (cm/sec2) Earth gravitational acceleration. |

Sc | 3.37333478376e-7 | (grm/cm2 sec) Mass received by each Sun cm2. |

Ie | 1.94349269521443e20 | (gr/cent) Mass received by Earth per century. |

Ec | 1.20474337559e-8 | (gr/cm2 sec) Mass received by each Earth cm2. |

Rse | 2.80004426844e1 | Ratio of Sun/Earth, mass received by each cm2. |

Rg | 2.80004426844e1 | Ratio of Sun/Earth gravitational acceleration. |

Me | 1.03048351974e-17 | (gr/sec) Mass received by 1 gr per second. Earth. |

Ns | 1.22895716612e-11 | (gr sec/cm3) N, Gravitational constant.(From Sun). |

Ne | 1.22895716612e-11 | (gr sec/cm3) N, Gravitational constant. (Earth). |

Mm | 1.03048351974e-17 | (gr/sec) Mass received by 1 gr per second. (Moon). |

Mc | 1.99347367243e-9 | (gr/cm2 sec) Mass received by each Moon cm2. |

gm | 1.62208555952e-9 | (cm/sec2) Moon gravitational acceleration. |

Nm | 1.22895716612e-11 | (gr sec/cm3) N, Gravitational constant.(Moon). |

Mae | 6.46607248058e-40 | (gr/sec atom) Mass received by each atom (Earth). |

Mam | 3.91456989037e-40 | (gr/sec atom) Mass received by each atom (Moon). |